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How to Cite to Pennsylvania Legal Sources

These are sample citations to legal sources in Pennsylvania according to the Bluebook. Pennsylvania courts choose different citation formats for some sources, and I have included them below in red:

Constitution

  • Pennsylvania Constitution

Pa. Const. art. IX, § 2

Cases

  • Pennsylvania Supreme Court

Commonwealth v. Williams, 832 A.2d 962 (Pa. 2003)

  • Pennsylvania Superior Court

Commonwealth v. Basinger, 982 A.2d 121 (Pa. Super. Ct. 2009)

Commonwealth v. Basinger, 982 A.2d 121 (Pa. Super. 2009)

  • Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court

Wilson v. Marrow, 917 A.2d 357 (Pa. Commw. Ct. 2007)

Wilson v. Marrow, 917 A.2d 357 (Pa. Cmwlth. 2007)

*Statutes

  • Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes

1 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 102 (<year>)

1 Pa.C.S. § 102

Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes is the official codification and has 79 titles. Commonly cited titles include: Title 18 (Crimes Code), Title 20 (Probate, Estates and Fiduciaries Code), and Title 23 (Domestic Relations Code).

Citing to this official compilation is preferred over citing to Purdon’s Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes Annotated (Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. or Pa.C.S.A.), which is West’s annotated version.

*Regulations

  • Pennsylvania Code

1 Pa. Code § 1.2 (<year>)

1 Pa. Code § 1.2

Rules

  • Pennsylvania Rules of Civil Procedure

Pa. R. Civ. P. 51

Pa.R.C.P. 51

  • Pennsylvania Rules of Criminal Procedure

Pa. R. Crim. P. 102

Pa.R.Crim.P. 102

  • Pennsylvania Rules of Appellate Procedure

Pa. R. App. P. 101

Pa.R.A.P. 101

*Important note regarding Pennsylvania statutes and regulations:

Unlike many states, Pennsylvania’s statutes are not in a “Code.” The Pennsylvania Code contains regulations, not statutes. This is a point of confusion for many (lawyers and non-lawyers alike), particularly those out of state.

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